Shades of Praguian Yellow

Ľudovít Štúr was born on 29 Oct 1815 in Uhrovec in the Kingdom of Hungary (in the exact home exactly where Alexander Dubček was later on born) as the next kid of Samuel and Anna Štúr. He was baptized in the Evangelical Lutheran church in Uhrovec. He acquired his standard training, such as the know-how of Latin, from his father Samuel, who was a teacher. From 1827–1829, he researched at Győr, exactly where he attended a decrease grammar school. There he enhanced his know-how of history, and German, Greek and Hungarian languages. These studies provoked his admiration of Pavel Jozef Šafárik, Ján Kollár and Jiří Dobrovsky. In 1829, he determined to transform school.

From 1829–1836, Ľudovít Štúr researched at the prestigious Lutheran Lýceum (preparatory substantial school and higher education) in Pressburg and turned a member of the Czech-Slav Culture, which stimulated his interest in all Slav nations. There was a famed Section of the Czechoslovak Language and Literature of the aged Professor Juraj Palkovič at the school, the only these types of section at a Protestant school of higher education in the nineteenth century Hungary.

In 1831, Ľudovít Štúr wrote his to start with poems. From January–September 1834, he briefly interrupted his studies due to lack of finances and returned to Zayugróc, exactly where he labored as scribe with Depend Károly Zay. Afterwards that year he resumed his studies, was active in the historic and literary circle of the Czech-Slav Culture, was accountable for the correspondence with users of the Culture, gave private classes in the home of a merchant in Pressburg (currently: Bratislava), taught youthful students at the Lýceum and recognized make contact with with essential overseas and Czech students. On seventeen December 1834, he was elected secretary of the Czech-Slav Culture at the Lýceum.

In Might 1835, Ľudovít Štúr persuaded Jozef Hurban to turn out to be associated in the Slovak nationwide motion. Also that year, he was co-editor of the Plody (“Fruits”) almanac, a compilation of the ideal is effective of the users of the Czech-Slav Culture, such as poems of Štúr’s. He turned vice-president of the Czech-Slav Culture, instructing more mature students at the Lyceum the history of the Slavs and their literatures.

In 1836, Štúr wrote a letter to the essential Czech historian František Palacký, exactly where he said that the Czech language employed by the Protestants in Upper Hungary had turn out to be incomprehensible for the normal Slovaks, and proposed the creation of a unified Czechoslovak language, furnished that the Czechs would be willing to use some Slovak words – just like Slovaks would officially take some Czech words. But the Czech were being unwilling to take this, and so Štúr and his close friends determined to introduce a absolutely new Slovak language typical in its place.[quotation desired] On 24 April 1836, the famed trip to Devín Castle (Dévény, now element of Bratislava) by the users of the Slovak nationwide motion took place, led by Štúr as the vice-president of Czech-Slav Culture. The starting of his group’s substantial initiatives on behalf of nationwide awareness are joined to this go to to the ruins of Devín Castle, woven about with legends of the past with reminders of Terrific Moravia. The users of the Czech-Slav Culture swore right here to be legitimate to the nationwide bring about, deciding to travel about Upper Hungary to drum up assist for their ideas. At the castle, they also adopted added Slavic names (e.g., Jozef Hurban turned Jozef Miloslav Hurban, and so forth.).

From 1836–1838, as deputy (non-stipendiary assistant) for Professor Palkovič, Chair of the Czechoslovak Language and Literature at the Lyceum, exactly where he was previously scholar, he taught history of Slavic literature. He ongoing to generate poetry and underneath his leadership, the amount of users of the Czech-Slav Culture was continually raising. In this year, a poem of Štúr’s was released in printed form for the to start with time: Óda na Hronku (“An ode to Hronka”). In April 1837, the Czech-Slav Culture was prohibited due to scholar commotion at the Lyceum. Just one week later on Štúr started the Institute of the Czechoslovak Language and Literature, within just which the actions of the Czech-Slav Culture ongoing. In that year he ongoing to generate content articles for newspapers and journals, such as Tatranka, Hronka, Květy (Czech), Časopis českého musea, Danica (Croatian) and Tygodnik literacki (Polish).

From 1838–1840, he attended the (Protestant) University of Halle in Germany, exactly where he researched linguistics, history and philosophy. He was influenced by the is effective of the German philosophers Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Johann Gottfried Herder. Also throughout this period of time, his poetic cycle Dumky večerní (“Night ideas” written in Czech) was released in the Czech journal Květy. He still left Pressburg for Halle in September 1838. On his way to Halle, he invested more than just one month in Prague surrounded by Czech patriots. In the spring of 1839, Štúr made a prolonged journey to the Upper and Lower Lusatia in Germany (inhabited by Slavs) and bought in contact with the Slavs there. He wrote the short travelogue Cesta do Lužic vykonaná na jar 1839 (“A journey to Lusatia made in the spring of 1839”), written in Czech and released in the Czech journal Časopis českého musea.

In 1840, he returned to Bratislava by means of Prague and Hradec Králové (Königgrätz), exactly where he invested some time in the home of the publisher Jan Pospíšil. From Oct, he was when yet again working as deputy for Professor Palkovič at the Section of the Czecho-Slav Language and Literature at the Evangelic Lutheran Lyceum, instructing programs of grammar and Slav history, and continuing his actions at the Institute of Czechoslovak language.

During 1841–1844, Štúr was co-editor of Palkovič’s literary journal Tatranka. In 1841, he started out actions aimed at publishing a Slovak political newspaper. He wrote defensive and polemic texts as effectively as his Starý a nový věk Slovákov (“The aged and the new age of the Slovaks”), written in Old Czech and released in 1935 (in Slovak only in 1994). On sixteen August 1841, Štúr and his close friends ascended Kriváň (a symbolic mountain in Slovak lifestyle), an event that is now commemorated by once-a-year excursions to its summit. In 1842, he initiated the to start with Slovenský prestolný prosbopis, a Slovak petition to the Royal Court in Vienna demanding the government to prevent nationwide persecutions by the Hungarians in Upper Hungary. His software for a licence to publish a newspaper was turned down in the exact year.

On two February 1843, in Pressburg, Štúr and his close friends determined to codify the Slovak language typical employed currently, primarily based on central Slovak dialects – a popular language that would unify all Slovaks talking many distinctive dialects. From 26–29 June 1843, a unique committee achieved to look into in opposition to the Institute of Czechoslovak Language at the Lyceum, also interrogating Štúr. Štúr was pressured to go away his place at the Institute and 22 students supporting Štúr also still left the institution and started out their studies at Evangelical lyceum in Levoča (Lőcse).

In July 1843, his defensive do the job Die Beschwerden und Klagen der Slaven in Ungarn über die gesetzwidrigen Übergriffe der Magyaren (“The complaints and grievances of the Slavs in Hungary about the unlawful misfeasances of the Hungarians”), which editorial workplaces in the nineteenth century Hungary had refused to publish, was released in Leipzig, Germany. From 11–16 July 1843, at the parish home of J. M. Hurban in Hlboké, the leaders of the Slovak nationwide motion – Štúr, J. M. Hurban and M.M. Hodža – agreed on how to codify the new Slovak language typical and how to introduce it to the community. On seventeen July 1843, they frequented Ján Hollý, an essential writer and agent of the more mature Bernolák Slovak language typical, in Dobrá Voda and educated him about their strategies. On 11 Oct 1843, although the committee did not come across anything at all unlawful about Štúr’s actions, Štúr was requested to prevent lecturing and was taken out from the operate of deputy for Prof. Palkovič. On the other hand, Štúr ongoing to give lectures. On 31 December 1843, he was definitively deprived of the operate of deputy for Prof. Palkovič. As a result, in March 1844, 22 students still left Pressburg in protest thirteen of them went to analyze at the Evangelical lyceum in the town of Levoča. Just one of the supporting students was Janko Matuška, who by this opportunity developed a hymnical track Nad Tatrou sa blýska, which later on turned official anthem of the Slovak republic.

From 1843–1847, Štúr labored as a private scientist. In 1844, he wrote Nárečja slovenskuo alebo potreba písaňja v tomto nárečí (“The Slovak dialect or the requirement to generate in this dialect”). On 19 Might 1844, a next Slovenský prestolný prosbopis was sent to Vienna, but had little influence. But in 1844 other Slovak authors (often Štúr’s students) started out to use the new Slovak language typical. On 27 August, he participated in the founding conference of the Slovak association Tatrín, the to start with nation-broad association.

On 1 August 1845, the to start with challenge of Slovenskje národňje novini (“Slovak Countrywide Newspaper” released till 9 June 1848) was released. Just one week later on, its literary addendum Orol Tatranský (“The Tatra Eagle” released till 6 June 1848) was also released. In this newspaper, written in the new Slovak language, he gradually formed a Slovak political plan. He primarily based this on the precept that the Slovaks were being just one nation and that they hence had a proper to their own language, lifestyle, educational institutions, and specially political autonomy within just Hungary. The projected expression of this autonomy was to be a Slovak Diet regime. Also that year, his brochure Das neunzehnte Jahrhundert und der Magyarismus (“The nineteenth century and Magyarism”), written in German, was released in Vienna.

In 1846, Štúr bought to know the yeoman Ostrolúcky family members in Zemianske Podhradie (Nemesváralja), who later on served him to turn out to be a deputy in the Hungarian Diet regime in Pressburg. He also fell in enjoy with Adela Ostrolúcka. In addition, his textbooks Nárečja Slovenskuo alebo potreba písaňja v tomto nárečí (1844) and Nauka reči Slovenskej (“The Concept of the Slovak language”) were being released in Pressburg. In Nárečia Slovenskuo, he refused Kollár’s concept of only four Slavic tribes (Russians, Poles, Czechs and Southern Slavs) and shown motives for the introduction of the new language, which is primarily based on central Slovak dialects and utilizes phonetic spelling. In Nauka reči Slovenskej he spelled out the grammar of the new language typical. In the exact year, the upset Kollár and his followers released the compilation do the job „Hlasové o potřebě jednoty spisovného jazyka professional Čechy, Moravany a Slováky“ (“Voices in favour of the requirement of a unified literary language of the Czechs, Moravians and Slovaks”), written in Czech.

In August 1847, at the 4th conference of the Tatrín association in Čachtice, Catholics and Protestants “definitively agree to use only the freshly codified Štúr language typical”. On thirty Oct 1847, he turned a deputy for the town of Zvolen (Zólyom) in the Hungarian Diet regime in Pressburg. From seventeen November 1847 to thirteen March 1848, he gave five essential speeches at the Diet regime, in which he required the abolishment of serfdom in Hungary, the introduction of civil rights and the use of the Slovak language for instructing in elementary educational institutions. The Diet regime achieved only right up until 11 April 1848 due to the 1848 revolution.

On 1 April 1848 in Vienna, Štúr and his colleagues organized the Slavic Congress of Prague. On twenty April 1848, he arrived in Prague on the invitation of the Czech J. V. Frič, exactly where he received the assist of Czech students that were being users of the association Slávie regarding his makes an attempt to implement the Slovak language. On thirty April 1848, he initiated the establishment of “Slovanská lipa” (Slavic lime) in Prague – an association aiming at advertising the mutual cooperation of the Slavs.

In Might 1848, he was just one of the authors of the official petition Žiadosti slovenského národa (“Needs of the Slovak Nation”). The Žiadosti slovenského národa was publicly declared in Liptovský Svätý Mikuláš, with Janko Francisci as the reader. In it, the Slovaks demanded autonomy within just Hungary, a proportional representation in the Hungarian Assembly, the creation of a Slovak Diet regime to administer their own region, exactly where Slovak would turn out to be the official language and instructional institutes from elementary educational institutions to universities would use Slovak. They also known as for common suffrage and democratic rights – e.g., freedom of the push and community assembly. They requested that peasants be produced from serfdom and that their lands be returned to them. But on twelve Might 1848, the Hungarian government issued a warrant on the leaders of the Slovak motion: Štúr, Hurban and Hodža. The persecuted Štúr arrived in Prague on 31 Might 1848. On two June 1848 he participated in the Slavic Congress there.

On 19 June 1848 he went to Zagreb, Croatia, because the Slavic Congress was interrupted by preventing in Prague, and turns into an editor of the Croatian journal Slavenski Jug. With economic assist from some Serbs, he and J. M. Hurban started out to put together an rebellion in opposition to the Hungarian government. The “Slovak Uprising” transpired involving September 1848 and November 1849. In September 1848, Štúr travelled to Vienna and participated in the preparations for the Slovak armed rebellion. On 15–16 September 1848, the Slovak Countrywide Council, the supreme Slovak political and military organisation consisting of Štúr, Hurban and Hodža (as politicians) and the Czechs B. Bloudek, F. Zach and B. Janeček (as military authorities), was developed in Vienna. On 19 September 1848, in Myjava, the Slovak Countrywide Council declared independence from the Hungarian government and known as on the Slovak nation to begin an armed rebellion. But the Council only managed to command the bordering Slovak region.

Štúr, Hurban and other people achieved in Prague on seven Oct 1848 to discuss further proceedings relating to the rebellion. On returning to Vienna in November, Štúr and Slovak volunteers – on just one of the so-known as Volunteer Campaigns – traversed northern Hungary from Čadca (Csaca) up to Prešov (Eperjes) right up until March in 1849. On twenty March 1849, he participated in a deputation that frequented the Austrian king, in the Czech town of Olomouc, presenting him needs relating to the Slovak nation. From March right up until June, Štúr – alongside with Hurban, Hodža, Bórik, Chalúpka and other people – negotiated in Vienna about a resolution to the Slovak needs. But on 21 November 1849, the Slovak volunteer corps was officially demobilized in Pressburg, and the upset Štúr retreated to his parents’ household in Uhrovec.

The later on yrs of Štúr’s everyday living saw him have interaction in further scientific and literary do the job. In the autumn of 1850 he attempted but unsuccessful to obtain a licence to publish a Slovak nationwide newspaper. In December of that year he participated in a deputation to Vienna relating to Slovak educational institutions and the Tatrín association. Numerous personalized tragedies also transpired throughout his later on everyday living. His brother Karol died on thirteen January 1851. Štúr moved into the home of Karol’s family members in Modra (near Pressburg) to treatment for his seven children he lived there underneath police supervision. On 27 July 1851, his father died his mother moved to Trenčín (Trencsén).

In Oct 1851 he participated in meetings in Pressburg relating to a reform of the codified Slovak language typical. The reform, involving largely a transition from the phonetic spelling to an etymological just one, was later on released by M. M. Hodža and Martin Hattala in 1851–1852, but Štúr, between other people, also participated in the preparations. The result of this reform was the Slovak language typical still employed currently, with insignificant variations.

In Modra in 1852, Štúr finished his essay O národních písních a pověstech plemen slovanských (“On nationwide tunes and myths of Slavic kins”), written in Czech and released in Bohemia the future year. In addition he wrote his essential philosophic guide Das Slawenthum und die Welt der Zukunft (“The Slavdom and the earth of the upcoming”), written in German, released in Russian in 1867 and 1909 (released in German in 1931 in Slovak in 1993). Between other points, he recapitulated there the occasions that introduced the Slovaks in their disconsolate predicament at that time and advised as a resolution to cooperate with Russia, consequently generally passing from his Slovak nationwide strategy to pan-Slavism.

In 1853, his platonic girlfriend, Adela, died in Vienna on 18 March. He also went to just take treatment of his unwell mother in Trenčín, prior to she died on 28 August 1853. The only compilation of his poetry, Spevy a piesne (“Singings and tunes”) was also released in Pressburg that year. On 11 Might 1854, he held a speech at the unveiling of the Ján Hollý monument (Ján Hollý obtaining died in 1849) in Dobrá Voda he had also written a poem in honour of that person.

On 22 December 1855, Štúr inadvertently shot and wounded himself throughout a hunt near Modra. In the past times of his everyday living, he was largely supported by his friend Ján Kalinčiak. On twelve January 1856, Ľudovít Štúr died in Modra. A nationwide funeral was held there in his honour.

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