- Recently, two different opinions have been discussed about L1 use in EFL classes.On the one side, it is believed that L1 should be used in EFL classrooms with the opinion of that L1 use reduces anxiety which helpsstudents learn beter (Auerbach, 1993;Reis,1996;Cole,2001;Buckmaster,2000;Toyama,Viney,Helgesen,Bernard & Edge3,2000; and Need help urgently,2001).On the other side, the benefits of teaching English through English are emphasized and L1 use is restricted (Ellis,1984;Chaudron,1988;and Takahashi,1996).This view emphaizes that the more students are exposed to the target language,the beter their capabilities in the target language will be.
Regarding the relation betweenj the input students receive in the target language and the outcame,Chaudron(1988) states that :
‘’……… in the typical foreign language classroom,the common belief is that the fullest competence in the TL (target language) is achieved by means of the teacher providing a rich TL environment, in which not only instruction and drills are executed in the TL, but also disciplinary and management operations.” )p.1)
- Exposure to L2 and information in the L2 are claimed to be more important in EFL settings as EFL learners are generally not exposed to English outside the classroom in their daily lives unless they try to find some changes on their own ( Ellis,1994 and Murhey & Sasaki, 1998).On the other hand Martin (2000), stated that an effective EFL teacher should use L1 when necessary in EFL classroom. Recenty, there has been a growing interest in the use of L1 in monolingual low level EFL classrooms (Reis,1996; Cole,2001; Buckmaster,2000; Hawks,2001; and Toyama,2000). That is believed that use of L1 in the EFL classrooms may be helpful in providing students with a secure learning environment.In relation to the pedagogical benefits of L1 when in language classes, Auerbach (1993) indicates that :
‘’its [L1] use reduces anxiety and enhances the effective environment for learning, takes into account sociocultural factors, facilities incorporation of learners’ life experiences, and allows for learner-centered curriculum development.”(p.2)
Although it is assumed that L1 use reduces anxiety in monolingual language classes (Allwright & Bailey ,1991), the situation could be different in advanced level classes.For example, the findings of the study by Ayd?n (2001) revealed that some advanced level students showed annoyance about L1 use.
The potantiel advantages of L1 use are discussed in terms of grammer, classroom management, vocabulary and methodogical issuses in EFL classrooms.L1 use is not suggested for speaking activites (Cole, 2001).As Atkinson (1993) and Galloway (1993) argue, communicative language teaching approach seems to avoid addressing L1 use.
- Using English only, in EFL classrooms is possible but it fails to take accounts of a number of factors.Many EFL teachers try to use English as much as possible as they can in the classroom.They give instructions in English, they require students to ask any kind og questions in English and they say students should use Englisj while working in groups and pairs with their friends in the classrooms.These are all probable and positive things in an EFL classroom.However the mother tonguecan be used to provide a quick and accurate translation of an English word that might take several minutes for the teacher to explain.
Using English only, in EFL classrooms can lead to some problems because there would be no guarantee that the insructions and explanations are understood correctly, Also an English teacher can have difficulties in general classroom management if he/she insists on using English only Depending English only makes students feel uncomfortable if they have some problems with speaking skills.In addition students cannot combine the two languages if they are restricted to use English in classroom.
Hopkins (1988:18) claims that ‘’if the learner of a second language is encouraged to ignore his/her native language, he/she might well feel identity threatened.”
- Because of these problems caused by using English only, in EFL classroom,teachers should use mother tongue while teaching English as a second language.But EFL teachers should now to what extend they should use mother tongue and the effects of using mother tongue in EFL classrooms.By taking the advantage of using mother tongue in EFL classrooms teachers should create the best teaching environment for their students.
This study aims to reveal the opinions of mother tongue use in teaching tongue use in teaching English in EFL classes by showing true reasons whether EFL teachers should use mother tongue or not.Also, to what extend mother tongue should be used by EFL teachers in the classroom.In order to achieve these aims, observation methods and questionnaires will be used and the results will be held objectively by the researchher.
When the literature on L1 use in EFL classrooms is thougt, there seems to be policital and adeological reasons rather than pedagogical reasons behind the challenging debate on L1 use (Auerbach,1993; and Hawks,2001). These idealgical / policital reasons date back to the Americanization movement in the 19. centry.While this movement give rise the spread of ESL instruction, ELT methodology advocated the use of English-only instruction,for example as in direct method, in contrast to the earlier ones in which the use of learners’ L1 had been allowed,as in Gramer-Translation (Celce-Murcia,1991; Auerbach,1993; and Richard & Rodgers, 1986).
With the world war I,the number of immigrants increased in America.This immigration movement made ESL instruction become more important than ever because those immigrants were working at different jobs and expected to speak good English.This Americanization movement influenced ELT methods.For example; Direct Method, which emphasies using English only with no L1 was allowed (Auerbach,1993).
L1 use in ELT methodology was not only affected by the Americanization movement but it was also affected by British policies.In the late 1950s and early1960s, English was regarded as a tool which helps the spreading colonies of Britain.Therefore, L1 use had no place in ELT.In a conference at Makare Universty, Uganda in 1961, ELT experts mentioned that ;
- English is best taught monalingually
- The ideal teacher of English is a native speaker
- The earlier English is taught, the beter the results
- The more English is taught, the beter the resul?ts
- If other languages are used too much, standarts of English will drop (Phillipson, 1992.p.185).
According to Phillipson (1992), these five principles say that there is no place for L1 in ELT. The reason for regarding use of L1 in ELT as a taboo is based on theideological and policital reasons.Spreading English was English was such a strong purpose in America and Britain that using L1 was excluded in ESL during Amercanization movement.
Researches in ELT showed that L1 can be a very important source.The belief that L1 use might play an important to improve the second language has received great attention in bilingual education (Collingham, 1988; and Piasecka,1988 ) lists the advantages of using learners’ L1 in ESL classrooms like:
- Valuing and building on the knowledge that learners already have and bring to the classroom.
- Raising the position of languages used by ethnic minorities in Britain, which in turn raises the self esteem of the speakers of those languages,making them more confident and effective learners.
- Raising language awareness.Learners already have some linguistic skills and knowledge; by thinking about their own and other languages, a class will learn more about language and languages in general.This can speed up aspects of learning and increase learners’ tolerance of one another’s diffucilties.In this way students cooperation is raised and classroom Dynamics are improved.
- Using learners’ first language improves learning English.
- There is less similarity of the lesson content being patronizing or childish where the contributions students can make in L1 are recognized as important.
- Fostering cooperative and independent learning.
- Reducing learner anxiety and increasing confidence and motivation in the classroom.
- Gaining every learner, no matter how limited their knowledge of English, to support to the lesson in many waydepending on their previous experience (p.82).
Seeing the list above, Collingham (1988) states the importance of L1 use in bilingual education.
Atkinson (1987 ) makes a classification with nine principal occasions and activities for which L1 use is useful in teachinh / learning process and environment.These nine occasions (at all levels), giving complex instructions (at early levels), cooperation among learners (at early levels), discussion of classroom methodology (at early levels), presantition of language (mainly at early levels), checking for sense, testing, development of useful learning strategies (advanced levels). But he mentions not use L1 too much in EFL classes.
Piasecka (1988 ) suggests possible occasions in which mother tongue (L1) should be used.These occasions are argument of the syllabus and lesson, setting the scene at the begining og class, profiling and record-keeping, resolving individual areas of diffuculty, classroom management,personal contact, language analysis, instructions or prompts, error explanations,assessment of comprehension, presantation of rules, governinf gramer / phonology /morphology and spelling, cross-cultural issues discussion, assessment and avaulation of the lesson.She says that it is not only important to know the levels of learners but also the content and the format of the lesson would determine the use of L1 in EFL classes.
Piasecka (1988) states that, L1 is important in ESL classes.Students levels of proficiency in English should be based on the amount of L1 use. At first stages, learners’ knowledge in English limited.Therefore tjeir L1 knowledge could be used to help them improve their English.As learners’ proficiency level increases, the amount of L1 use should decrease.
With the knowledge of her observations and experience Collingham (1988) also suggests nine occasions in which L1 use can be helpful in EFL classrooms : to discuss the sykkabus, to develop ideas to Express them in the L2, to reduce inhibitions or affective blocks to L2 production, to elitic language and discourse strategies, to teach vocabulary, to teach phonology, to provide explanations of grammar, to facilitate comprehension questions, to provide essential information to minimize the change of misinterpretation.
Here is a summary of the occasions for L1 use by the there researchers (figure 1 ):
PIASECKA (1988 )
1. eliciting language
3.giving complex instruction
4.co-operation among learners
5.discussion of classroom methodology
6.presantation and reinforcement of language
7.checking for sense
9.development of useful learning strategies
1.negotiation of the syllabus and the lesson
2.setting the scene at the begining of class
3.profiling and record keeping
4.resolving individual areas of difficulty
8.instructions or prompts
9.explanation of errors
10.assessment of comprehension
11.presantation of rules,governing gramer
12.discussion of cross cultural issues
13.assessment and evaluation of lesson
1. to discuss syllabus
2.to developed ideas to Express them in L2
3.to reduce inhibitions or affective blocks to L2 production
4.to elitic language and discourse strategies
5.to teach vocabulary
6.to teach vocabulary
7.to provide explanations of gramer
8.to facilitate comprehension questions
9.to provide essential information to minimize the change of misinterretation
- Figure 1. Suggested Occasions for L1 Use (Atkinson,1987,Collingham,1988 and Piasecka,1988)
As it is seen in the Figure 1, the ocasions in which L1 could be used are similar.But these suggested L1 occasions are context,specific.Also, there is no support for the validity of these occasions.These occasions can vary in different EFL classroom contexts.
Advantages of L2-Only Classes
In ELT,teacher talk is very important input for learners because teacher talk plays a significant role in L2 acquisition (Cullen,1988).It has been believed that learners’ fullest competence of the target language environment (Cchaudron,1988; and Ellis, 1994).Turnbull (2001) states that, this positive relation between teacher’s language use and the students’ test scores hasn’t any statistical support.
One of the findings in a research conducted with ESL educators in USA also showed that educators strangly believed that.
‘’The more students are exposed to English, the more quickly they will learn; as they hear and use English, they will internalize it and begin to think in English.”(Auerbach, 1993, p.14 )
Educators thoughts reflects the opinions of many other teachers but, Ellis (1994 ) and Gass (1988) points out that there is little research, which consistently supports this view ( Ellis 1994 ; and Gass 1988 ).
- Related to the L1 use in monalingual EFL classrooms, many discussions have been occurred.One of these discussions has focused on the relation between L1 use and input issue.Some researhers states that EFL teachers should use L1 at a minimum degree because learners have little exposure to L2 outside the classroom.Consequently, EFL classrooms and teachers are the only L2 sources of input for EFL learners (Polio & Duff, 1994; and Turnbull, 2001 ).Others, state that exposure to L2 does not guarantee that L2 input would result in input (Chaudron,1985; Ellis 1994; and Gass, 1988 ).
Advantages of L1 (mother tongue) Use
With regard to advantages and disadvantages of L1 use, it has been suggested that the use of L1 might help reduce learner’ anxiety, which facilitates the lerarning process (Krashen, 1982; Reis, 1996; Cole, 2001; and Auerbach, 1993 ).
The advantage of L1 use with respect to reducing anxiety reminds us of Krashen’s affective fitler hypothesis.In his affective fitler hypothesi Krashen (1982 ) states that allowing students to use L1 helps them lower their affective filter.
- Reis (1996 ) states when teaching English through English, he observed that his students were not content with his teaching English throuh English.He tried to convince them them about the advantages of the mazimum use of English in the classroom, but he cannot succeed. As a result, he come to a conllusion wit his students and they together decided to allow five minutes of L1 use in each class sessions. This five minutes of L1 was called the ‘’L1 break.” As Reis (1996 ) puts L1 break, it appearead to have impressive effect both on him and the students by reducing students’ affective fitler and created a friendly nice classroom environment.
Cole (2001) also supports the thought that L1 is the most useful at begining and low levels because it can provide students with a more secure and easy to learn atmosphere in class.However, the situation would be different in advanced level monolingual EFL classrooms. Ayd?n (2001) investigated the sources og EFL classroom anxiety in advantec level speaking and writing classes at the faculty of ELT department.The results showed that L1 use in the classroom is one of the anxiety sources.Some students reported annoyance about L1 use while others found L1 use helpful.
One yje other hand, it is believed that frequent L2 use makes students to feel anxious.Levince (2003) made a research to test this belief.In her study, she investigated the hypothesis that L2 use by teachers and students correlated positively with students’ sense of anxiety about L2 use. The results of the research showed a negative relation between reported amounts of L2 use reported L2-use anxiety.This result suggests that :
‘’… greater L2 use may not translate into greater anxiety for many learners and that many students feel comfortable with more L2 when that is what they are used to.” (Levince,1003, p.355)
As s consequence; it is not possible to conclude that L1 reduces anxiety and, so helps beter learning of English.Similarly, it cannot be said that L2 use is more beneficial in terms of lowering anxiety.
L1 Use in Communicative Language Teaching
Despite the thought that L1 use reduces learners’ anxiety and facilitate their learning process, L1 use has not been advocated in communicative language teaching and task-based learning methods ( Duff & Polio,1990; Polio & Duff, 1994; Cook, 2001; and Rolin-Ianziti, 2002). Although, experts claim that communicative language teaching has referred to neither the advantages nor disadvantages of L1 use, it is believed that L1 use should not have a place in communicative classes (Piasecka, 1988 and Cook, 2001 ).
- Although, the discussion about the L1 use in EFL classes is as old as the history of foreign language methodology, as Piesecka (1988) points out, there are no bases showing the disadvantages of L1 use or supporting the use of L1.Many studies focus on the occasions in which L1 is used or the reasons for the use of L1 in the classroom rather than investigating the effect of L1 use on learners’ performances, which could provide a useful solution to the problem.
Occasions of Reasons for and Attitudes towards L1 Use
The researches investigated some issues about whether or not to use L1 in the classroom.the studies related to L1 use have focused mainly on teachers’ more than learners’ use of L1 and their reasons for L1 use and attitudes towards L1 use have beeb investigated.
Duff and Polio (1990) concluded a research on the l! Use frequency, reasons for using L1, perception of L1 use and attitudes towards L1 use in foreign language classsrooms at the Unjiversity of California, Los Angeles ( UCLA). They studied three issuses related to L1 use in an EFL classroom.First, the ratio of L1 use by the teachers in the classroom was examined. Second issue was the factors related to the use of L1 and L2.
- The third was on teachers’ and students’ perceptions and attidudes towards the use of L1 in the foreign language classrooms.13 different foreign language classes and their teachers were the participants of the study.The data were collected through audio-recordings, classroom observations, student questionnaires and teacher interviews.The results showed that teachers’ L1 use changes from to 0 in 26 hours of smpled classroom sessions.This wide changes in the percentages was explained in the thre factors related to the use of L1 and L2.the analysis of audi-recordings, classroom observation and teacher interviews suggested that teachers’ L1 proficiency, language type taught, departmental policy, lesson content, materials used and teachers’ formal teacher trining might have had an effect on the amount of L1 and L2 use in classrooms.On the other hand, the findings suggested that there werw no relation between teaching experience and L1 and L2 usage.It was reported that many teachers in the study believed that trying to explain a point in L2 was a waste of time.Instead L1 would be much more functional and suitable and it was time. Some teachers stated that L2 use put a kind of pressure on students although frequent L2 use could facilkitate their learning process.Other teacher participants said that they used L1 rather than L2 because students knowledge of L2 was limited.
In another study by Polkio and Duff (1994) revealed when or for what function Foreign language (FL) teachers used L1.There were thirteen teachers in that study and they were teaching in all four skills in monolingual classes and students native language (L1) was English.The teachers’ native language was the target language (TL).As in the previous study, the researchers used audio-recordings, observations and teacher interviews to collect data fort he study.In the interviews the teachers were asked to state how, when and the extent to which they would usually use English, L1 in their classrooms.Later, the classes were observed and recorded.When the teachers were asked their reasons for L1 use in FL classes, they stated that they used L1 to take the students attention on important issues such as exams and quizzes, to save time and to create empathy, to practice English, to explain unknown vocabulary items and there was a lack of comprehension.But in the interviews, some teachers said that occasions for L1 use suggest that teachers were not aware of the exten of their L1 useçPolio and Duff (1994) state ‘’speakers in social settings are often simply unaware of their language use in given situation” (p.323).
- Murhey and Sasaki (1998) invstigated Japanese English teachers’ use of English in the classroom.Secondly, the teachers explained reasons for not speaking more English.At last,teachers’ facilitative beliefs and strategies they used to increase the amount of English use in the classroom were determined.The findings of the study showed that these teachers’ use of more English in their classes depended on their experiences in their teaching carriers.In the informal talks, the teachers claimed seven reasons for speaking Japanese instead of English in their classrooms.The seven reasons were these : 1. using Japanese is more comfortable, 2. to get through the information faaster, 3. Using Japanese feels more natural (as they were all Japanese), 4. Principals, parents and students want the teachers to teach for the entrance exams which is in Japanese, 5. Getting through the book is possible when Japanese is also used, 6. The netrance exam does not test English listening and speaking, therefore there is no need to study them, 7. The textbook is difficult so needed to be translated into Japanese so the students can understand it.
- Murhey and Sasaki (1998) tests their stu?dy about its reliability of the interview data.They suggest that current estimates of English/L2 use in the classroom should be determined by the help of various methods or by recording thee classes , and by increasing the number of teacher or student interviews.
- Jr. Schweerw (1999) made a study on the use of mother tongue (L1) in english classes at the Universty of Puerto Rico.The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and reasons of L1 (Spanish) use and attitudes of teachers and students towards L1 use in the English classroom.Four teachers participated in this study.The data of the study come from two sources: audio-recordings of 35 minute samples from three classes at the beginning, middle and the end of the semester and a short questionnaire was given both the four teacher participants and the 19 other professors in the department.In addition, a similar questionnaire about the attitudes towards the L1 use in the English classes was given to the students of all the professors who filled out the questionnaire.the students’ answers to the attitude questionnaire showed that Spanish should be used to
Some extent in English classes because a majority o fthe students believed that the use of Spanish helps them learn English better. The teachers’ answers to the questions ‘If you use Spanish in your classroom,why do you think this may be more effective than using English exclusively?’ asked the reasons of L1 use in the classroom.The reasons given by the four teachers were as it shows:
Teacher 1:”Sometimes it is more important for students to understand a concept tahn it is for that concept to be explained exclusively in English.”
Teacher 2:”In my writing courses, I use some Spanish because it helps students write beter reports. It also serves as an additional input to ensure that that they achieve the main objective of the course, which is the production of higher quality written work in English.”
Teacher 3:”First of all I use Spanish to establish rapport with my students, and secondly, to serve as a model person who speaks both languages and uses each one whenever necessary or convenient.”
Teacher 4:”I think students can identify better with a teacher who speaks to them in their own language, thereby letting them know that you respect and value their native language.”
Although the analysis of the recordings indicated the occasions where the four professors used Spanish, a statistical and descriptive report was not provided in the article.
Turnbull(2000) also carried out an investigation to determine the reasons of 4 teachers’ use of French(L2) and English(L1) or a mixture of both languages in their core French classes in Canada. All the teacher participants were native speakers of English and experienced in the profession. The data were based on the observations which took place nearly 8 weeks—an average of ten class hours for each teacher, or an average of 400 minutes per class. In the classes, the same Project based teaching unit was taught. Although the data analysis was mainly based on the teacher talk analysis method used by Polio and Duff(1994),many of the classifications came out of the data.The transcripts were divided into functional units and each functional unit was engaged to one of the three categories:social,academic or management.Each functional unit was coded as L1(English),L2(French) or mix(both languages).The results showed that the majority of the reasons for L1 and L2 use was academic based rather than social or management.
Like Murhey and Sasaki(1998),Turnbull also discusses the limitations of his study. He points out that semi-structured interwiews with the teachers about their used of French and English would have enhanced the reliability of the data analysis. It is suggested that video-recordings followed by semi structured interwiews should be used to determine EFL teachers’ use of L1 and L2 in the classroom.
In relation to attitudes towards L1 use, Al-Busaidi(1998) investigated teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards the use of L1 in EFL classrooms in Oman. The results showed that students’ level is the most influential factors that effected a teachers’ decision to use L1 in the classroom. In addition, these teachers preferred L1 when explaining the similarities or differences between L1 and L2 in considering grammar and vocabulary. The students’ use of L1,on the other hand, was most frequent in group work activities in which students were to use the target language to communicate and practice. The findings also showed that the teachers’attitude towards L1 use in the classroom was negative whereas the students showed positive attitudes. Students in lower level classes were more positive about L1 use when compare to higher level students. This findings supports the thought that there is a relation between EFL learners’ proficiency level and L1 use in the classroom.(Reis, 1996; Cole,2001; and Hawks,2001).
Takahaski(1996) made a study on Japanese teachers’ L1 use in the classroom and its influence on the students. This study aimed at finding a)the percentage of English and L1 used in the classrooms, b)whether or not the teachers and students are satisfied with the percentage of English and L1 use, c) when both the students and teachers think the teacher should use L1 in class, and d) how much the amount of the teachers’ English influence the students. A questionnaire that investigated the four issues listed above was developed for students and teachers. The students of English classes and their teachers at the English department of Nagoya College completed this questionnaire. In addition to the questionnaires, &Japenese teachers’ ‘reading comprehension’ and ‘dialogue’ classes of English were tape recorded and semi structured interviews with both the teachers and students were held. The results showed that English was used from and 0 range.
Most of the teachers said that they were satisfied with the amount of English they used in the classroom while they were not satisfied with the amount of L1 use. All teachers believed that L1 should be used when teaching grammar. The students in the study said that English rather than Japanese should be used in many occasions.
Rollin-Ianziti(2002) conducted a study to determine when French teachers used English, L1 in the foreign language context at the University of Queensland. Four teachers teaching French participated in the study. These teachers’ classes were audio-recorded for about six hours in a week. During the recordings, the teachers were informed that their classes would be recorded for the use of L1 in their speech. The results showed that the four teachers used L1 for these purposes: a)translation, b)metalinguistic uses, and c) communicative uses.
As the review of literature shows, there are some factors effecting L1 use in a language classroom. Some of these factors are, learners’ level of target language, teaching and learning context, materials, content and type of the lesson. Also we can infer from the literature review that the findings of one study investigating occasions, reasons for and attitudes towards L1 use in an EFL classroom might be different from those of other studies because issues are context-specific. Consequently, the finding of one study in the review of literature cannot be generalized. The data of such a study should be collected with the help of various methods or ways so the reliability of the data should not be questioned as Murhey and Sasaki (1998) and Turnbull(2000) stated.
This study aims at finding out the opinions of teachers and students in EFL process about the L1 use. It also investigates the reasons and occasions of the L1 use in EFL classrooms. These studies and beliefs in the review of literature related to L1 use is regarded as a guide to our research.
This study aimed at investigating basically two issues on L1 use in EFL classes. The study consists of two phases. In Phase 1,the occasions of and reasons for L1 use in EFL classes were investigated. In this phase, EFL students were asked how much mother tongue they used during English lessons. In the Phase 2,EFL teachers were asked how much mother tongue they used during English lessons.
Two group of people participated in this study,one was the instructors’ group and the other was the learners’ group. 3 EFL teachers and 62 EFL students of an Anatolian High School took part in this study. Two of the instructors are female an one is male. Forty one of the learners are female and twenty one are male. The level of the students’ is upper-intermediate and they all nearly have the same level of English and they are 16-17 year-old 10th grade students. One of the EFL teachers has 4 years experience, the other one has 8 years experience and the last one has 11 years teaching experience.
This study aimed to investigate opinions of EFL teachers and students towards the use of mother tongue(L1). In addition to that, this study will also clarify the reasons of L1 use, and will show which occasions L1 is used in the EFL classroom. In order to achieve these aims a descriptive design was held. At the end of the research the data were analyzed.
In this study two questionnaires were used. One was given to the EFL students while the other was given to the EFL instructors of Anatolian H?gh School. Both instructor and student questionnaires aimed at investigating the following issues:
1) When instructors and students in EFL classes use L1 (mother tongue)?
2) Why instructors and students in EFL classes use L1 (mother tongue) ?
3) The occasions in which L1 is used in EFL classes according to the instructors and students.
The following steps were taken to produce the final versions of both the instructor and student questionnaire.
- The L1 use occasions questionnaires was developed and adopted by the researcher. While developing the Belinda Ho Fong Wan Kam’s(1998) questionnaire was consulted. In additon, Atkinson’s(1987),Piasecka’s(1988) and Collingam’s(1988) suggestions on L1 use helped in developing the items in questionnaires.
- After the questionnaires were developed according to researcher’s aims, researcher firstly distributed the questionnaires to the students(see Appendix A), the questionnaires were in two languages(Turkish and English)in order not to let any misunderstandings(see Appendix A and B).After the students answered the questionnaires at the beginning of the lesson,researcher collected the data of this study from the students.
- Also these questionnaires were in two languages(Turkish and English) in order not to let any misunderstandings(see Appendix A and B).After they filled the questionnaires the data of the instructor questionnaire was colleceted.
- At the end of the data collection part 62 EFL students and 3 EFL instructors stated their L1 use opinions and occasions.
The data for this study were collected from the questionnaires(see Appendix A and B)about the L1 use occasions in EFL classes of Anatolian High School in the first term of 2007-2008 education year. To collect data a questionnaire was distributed to the students about the L1 use occasions in EFL classes and a questionnaire was distributed to EFL instructors about L1 use occaisons in courses they attended.
For this study,multiple choice frequency questionnnaires were held both fort he EFL instructors and students.Questionnnaires were applied to three EFL teacher and sixty two students.The questionnaires were both in Turkish and English in order to be understand clearly by all of the participants.With the help of study the attitudes of the participants and occasions were learned fort he L1 use in the EFL classrooms.
Data Analysis and Discussion of the Findings:
In this study,L1(Turkish) use in EFL classes was examined in two phases.In the first phase occaisons in which L1 is used were investigated.The second phase was designed to determine the occasions in which L1 is used by the EFL teachers in their English courses.In order to determine the occasions,two questionnaires were held by the researcher.One was applied to the instructors and the other was applied to the students in EFL classes.3 instructors and 64 students applied to the questionnaire.
L1 use has long been discussed in ELT.Some researchers advocate the use of L1 in ELT classes based on the assumption that it reduces anxiety and therefore promotes better learning(Reis, 1996; Cole, 1998; Buckmaster, 2000; Toyama, Viney, Helgesen, Barnard&Edge, 2000; and Hawks, 2001).Others on the other hand,believe that L1 use is disadvantageous because it prevents learners from exposing the target language(Ellis, 1984; Chaudron, 1998 and Takahaski, 1996).L1 use in EFL classroom is still a controversial issue.The present study,therefore,investigated the opinions of L1 use in EFL classes.The study also investigated L1 use occasions in EFL classes.
This study investigated the issues related to L1 use in two phases. In the first phase the occasions in which students use mother tongue was determined and in the second phase the occasins in which English teachers use mother tongue was determined.
Both in the first and second phase, the data were collected through questionnaires applied to the students and teachers. To determine the occasions in which mother tongue(L1) is used 64 students and 3 teachers were given a questionnaire. The students and teachers questionnaire were different from each other.
The results of the questionnaires revealed that instructors and students used L1(Turkish),on different occasions. Students stated that they frequently used L1 to chat with classmates(