Recent Challenges For Superior Exercise Nurses

Nowadays persons are residing extended than ever. The discovery of new technological know-how, impressive medicines, science, and exploration all play apart of that. An maximize in getting old population is a single of the most remarkable demographic trends in the entire world currently. Many elders current many elaborate disorders and demand elaborate treatment and condition administration. The challenge also presents many possibilities in the healthcare field and a shortage of suppliers in rural places. The roles for sophisticated apply nursing (APN) have been introduced since the late nineteenth century until the current (Hamric, Spross, and Hanson, 2009, p. 3). These roles contain licensed registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs), licensed nurse-midwives (CNMs), clinical nurse professionals (CNSs), and nurse practitioners (NPs) (Hamric, Spross, and Hanson, 2009, p. 3). Making trustworthiness and defining apply of APN roles did not firmly set up right until in late seventies (Hamric, Spross, and Hanson, 2009, p. 17).

In 1992, the American Nurse Association (ANA) recognized Healthcare Reform which targeted on restructuring the United States healthcare system to decrease prices and boost entry to treatment (Hamric, Spross, and Hanson, 2009, p. 23). Nowadays APNs encounter many issues as they attempt to be recognized by customers of the society. The present problems faced by APNs are reviewed underneath and this data is dependent on Superior Exercise Nursing: An Integrative Tactic (4th ed.).

The Key Challenges
The identified key problems are schooling, scope of apply, specialty apply, reimbursement, titling, prescriptive authority, legal standing, regulation, and credentialing problems. The similarities amongst these problems are all embedded in regulatory languages ​​which make it difficult for APNs to advantage from advancement of nursing part. The distinctions arise when a single failed to collaborate and to deal with these over problems as a whole and to boost collaborative interactions with other controlled overall health disciplines both of those at the national and point out stage. And, without a doubt these problems are continue to value to the apply of sophisticated apply nurses.

3 Selected Challenges
The a few preferred problems are scope of apply / specialty apply, reimbursement, and prescriptive authority. Like hardly ever ahead of, the profession for APNs has emerged into distinct era which presents many distinct possibilities and issues for newcomers. Nowadays APNs can be identified functioning everywhere from the loved ones apply, cardiology business, urgent treatment usually to crisis medicine. As a new graduate APN, the part can current many issues and obstacles in particular when she or he attempts to adjust to the new part whilst attempting to comply with a number of clinical apply guidelines.

Even nevertheless the title of APN is recognized as a important asset to the local community and other healthcare crew member, many of them are continue to struggled to get reimbursed thoroughly. The holistic caring tactic presented by APNs is not inferior to the medical product presented by doctors. The schooling requirement for both of those professions will be before long about the very same in particular with the new requirement of a doctoral degree for APNs. This is the explanation APNs continue to discussion for equivalent shell out for equivalent services when treatment is in comparison between both of those overall health suppliers.

Just after reading Superior Exercise Nursing: An Integrative Tactic (4th ed.) Page 606 and 607, the truth will become obvious that APNs have to show so significantly in purchase to acquire sole authority in scope of apply. The Board of Drugs carries on to locate means to limit the scope of apply for APNs. In accordance to Lugo, O&#39Grady, Hodnicki, & Hanson (2007), 23 states have sole authority from the board of nursing whilst other states have joint authority with the board of medicine, the board of pharmacy, or both of those (Hamric, Spross, and Hanson, 2009, p. 606). The end result of this disagreement has an effect on the part and apply of APNs tremendously in particular when they attempt to offer the best treatment probable in a well timed fashion.

Top rated Two Challenges
The preferred major two problems are reimbursement and prescriptive authority. As a new graduate APN, she or he ought to get educated nicely about distinct payment options these types of Medicare and Medicaid, third occasion payers, and much more to make sure proper reimbursement. The second system is to motivate universities in the course of the region to incorporate this important lesson as section of the regular curriculum. The nursing profession as a whole should keep on to flight aggressively for equivalent services for equivalent shell out due to the fact nursing profession should not be assumed as inferior to other unbiased overall health suppliers inspite of distinct types of caring tactic. As an person APN, a single ought to keep on the schooling to doctorial stage in purchase to test to take care of the unfair drawback of prescriptive authority throughout the nation. The second system is APNs should keep on to boost the recognition of APN as protected and price tag-successful choice company in the course of the healthcare techniques.

Regulatory Obstacles
The present regulatory obstacles for APNs are prescriptive authority, reimbursement strategies, nursing schooling, and scope of apply and titling. The variance in board restrictions from point out to point out is a trouble dealing with APNs who extremely cell (Hamric, Spross, and Hanson, 2009, p. 610). Even nevertheless prescriptive authority exists about the decades and will become rather regular for APN prescribers, but the needs continue to fluctuate from point out to point out (Hamric, Spross, and Hanson, 2009, p. 607). For these APNs who appreciate to journey and get the job done at a different point out to make sure to test the scope of apply for that point out as it varies substantially (Hamric, Spross, and Hanson, 2009, p. 607). The expert nursing companies and the Countrywide Council of Condition Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) have been functioning on a new regulatory product for APNs in purchase to boost some uniformity on credentialing and licensure (Hamric, Spross, and Hanson, 2009, p. 610) . A system of mutual regulatory recognition between states is needed and remains to be finished.

Even nevertheless most of the difficult get the job done was finished to boost the route to independency and uniformity for sophisticated apply nursing, but a number of problems keep on being to be solved in particular in the places of credentialing and regulation. Many nursing group is functioning aggressively to set a new regulatory product in area to boost a system of mutual regulatory recognition. The field in sophisticated apply nursing is evolving and shifting rapidly, in particular in the places of sophisticated apply nursing specialties. As a outcome of this elaborate change, policymakers and regulators encounter many issues and obstacles to make sure advancement of wide-dependent apply expectations. At the very same time this challenge also presents many new possibilities for advancing apply nursing consequently APNs keep on to show by themselves as protected and price tag-successful suppliers to the customers of society and to transfer forward to a better expert potential.


Hamric, AB, Spross, JA, & Hanson, CM (2009). Superior apply nursing: An integrative tactic (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Resource by Piseth Knight

The Pros of Tourism in Education and learning

Tourism is an essential and most effective software to market countrywide integration and provide persons from distinct pieces of the region or sub – continents close with each other. Pros of tourism are exceptional if it is accompanied with training. Traveling is considered as the most delightful practical experience in the lifestyle of students. People have relished and learnt a lot while touring on their instructional excursions. Students eagerly search forward for this sort of form of options when they are taken out of the 4 partitions of course rooms to distant sites. Englishmen take into consideration their education complete only right after a tour of the continent.

Geography is considered a quite boring and uninspiring topic if it is read sitting down in course rooms and just likely by several guides. The Excellent Ganga may be believed of a snake line operating along the map. The Taj Mahal may be taken as a monument just like several other individuals without actually traveling to it. The boring topic of Geography will surely turn into intriguing and absorbing once these sites of curiosity are visited by the students. Historical past is quite uninteresting for students for the reason that they consider of it as a tale of dead kings and their time period of kingdom and which is not likely to pay back university student of nowadays everything. On the other hand, if students are taken routinely to the web pages of glories and defeats, architectural master – items built during periods of these terrific dead monarchs, the topic of Historical past turns into extra intriguing and enjoyable than any other topic.

Really we can understand a lot extra factors when we actually occur in get in touch with or see this sort of factors or web pages involved with this sort of happenings. Sitting at home only will make our outlook a narrow just one. Any university student will are unsuccessful to realize the result of environment on the lifestyle of human beings. In working day-to-working day lifestyle, reading and receiving lonely theoretical expertise are not able to make any university student thriving. They ought to know the routines, manners, cultures and way of dwelling of persons in other sites. Traveling normally takes students to the sphere of useful expertise. They occur down to fact from the realm of desires and imagination. Although touring, students understand to adjust to the changed situations of dwelling and foot-routines and the environment also. Distinctive and different issues encountered during touring make the students conveniently adjustable. As this sort of, tourism offers far extra worthwhile lessons to students than the lessons of text guides.

There was a time when crossing the seas to get higher education was considered extremely sacrilegious. Foreign vacation was not inspired. It was this form of ostrich mentality which introduced about the worst variety of intellectual stagnation and induced an ignominous drop in the region. On the other hand now in cost-free India students have turn into alive to the have to have of understanding extra languages and get higher education in most up-to-date technologies. The most up-to-date strategy to understand a new language and realize the distinct tradition is to stay and extra between the persons whom we want to know. The understanding of Chinese language and tradition is ideal probable by dwelling for a brief length in China than likely by for a longer period courses in institutions in our region only. The understanding of a international language is the first stage towards comprehension of a nation. Global comprehension is probable for students of our region by getting tourism deals all around the planet.

A university student has to maintain his eyes and thoughts open while on instructional excursions. Tourism gives an practical experience of the planet and phone calls into motion and useful use of several attributes of thoughts and intellect formulated by training. Tact, participating identity, firmness and lively dialogue are some of the items of touring throughout size and breadth of region and the planet. A university student have to have not initiate the routines, manners or fashions of other persons whom he visits. Only superior and good attitudes ought to be adopted from other individuals. The university student ought to realize the financial issues confronted by rural persons when he goes to the villages and see how without good educational institutions and hospitals, persons are surviving. The students may make a selection to provide the lousy and innocent folks in villages right after completing their scientific tests.

Traveling ought to be manufactured a section of the training procedure at each and every stage of scientific tests. Students will not only turn into extra educated about their country’s all walks of lifestyle and tradition but will be liberal in outlook. They will have maturity of judgment and clear in their comprehension of persons and their minds. Tourism is the fastest and the ideal if not the lowest priced strategy of understanding new factors.…

Is Encounter or Credentials Additional Essential in Teaching English?

Encounter trumps pieces of paper – but only in the classroom!

Allow me make clear. Numerous educational institutions, specially in some spots, remain paper-pushed. Allow me give a sad illustration. I now instruct English at an elite non-public college and produce article content for a lot of publications, but I couldn’t get a teaching position in a California public school teaching English due to the fact I lack the suitable MA. The wide the greater part of community educational facilities look at pieces of paper and do not talk to for demonstrations of classroom talent.

Furthermore, expertise and practical experience, for several educational institutions, remain of minimal use. Coursework counts. Former President Clinton could not instruct federal government, historical past, or social studies in California community educational facilities. Academy Award successful actors can not instruct theater in the educational facilities. Environment course musicians can not instruct music. It is really totally absurd.

As a end result of this obsession with summary expertise, paper credentials and undervaluing of practical experience, gurus and experienced lecturers operate with extra upper-income students and elite institutions. The substantial gap concerning community educational facilities and non-public educational facilities will become even larger. The public school system continuously turns absent experienced, quality lecturers due to the fact of their really slim notions of what qualifies just one to instruct students. The homeschooling motion and the swift growth of on the net education and learning systems can be observed as a populist revolt from rigid, untrue notions of education and learning.

Back in 1991 in the course of the previous significant financial disaster, I used to instruct in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD). I experienced to persuade a LAUSD human useful resource professional that a course in American Limited Stories in the Literature division at New York College need to be counted as an English course! The LAUSD “professional” experienced never ever read of New York College, and couldn’t treatment a lot less about the quality of the educational institution. She just desired five courses from any English division. A Literature division was not an English division. She changed my thoughts as I overtly mocked her reasoning and promised to produce an write-up about this absurdity. It is really also really worth noting that I spoke to 22 “human useful resource specialists” that day due to the fact there were 22 traces on a variety. The method took all day. This “generate a work” technique to public education qualified prospects to dysfunction on so several degrees. Each and every day expended downtown on paperwork is a greenback taken absent from the classroom.

Afterwards that week I crammed out the similar variety at Santa Monica Unified School District in half an hour – and spoke to just one human being. I chose to operate in Santa Monica School District.

“We discover to walk by stumbling”, goes the Bulgarian proverb. Academics, and students, discover by undertaking and earning superior issues. Larry M. Lynch, a prolific creator, not long ago examined this problem in “Are Some Credentials Overrated?” on his BetterEFLteacher blog. He nailed the problem with looking through five hundred books to develop into a regarded qualified as a substitute of just throwing yourself in and attaining practical classroom practical experience. Thousands of sensible, proficient, and artistic lecturers have taught English – with minimal education – with fantastic results around the planet.

The finest lecturers are often autotelic (self-directed), and share their passion for finding out and design really like of expertise. Which is just one motive that homeschooling often operates superior than keeping in community educational facilities. A parent focuses on the person needs of their small children, and delivers fantastic passion to the classes. Learners need to have each advice and inspiration.

Just introducing a new established of letters immediately after a teacher’s title isn’t going to magically completely transform them into a dynamic, quality English instructor. The willingness to endure ridiculous bureaucratic procedures and reciting the hottest educational jargon does not actually certify teaching skill. Teaching remains extra of an artwork variety than a science. Our classrooms need to have authentic English lecturers who exude vitality and arouse student curiosity for our perplexing, fascinating, and fantastic language.

Source by Eric Roth

Linking Top quality Assurance’s Operational Program in Higher Education Institution’s Departments

All organizations attempt for security to execute recognition. To achieve immovability, they have to have accreditation by approved bodies that release institutional sanctions based from standardized criteria and procedures. In buy that instructional group will be skilled for recognition, its high-quality assurance must stipulate the vital tenets in its operational strategies. According to Church (1988), high-quality assurance is about ensuring that there must be instruments, steps and procedures accessible to guarantee the accomplishment of distinctive stage of superiority, which alludes to UNESCO’s educational definition as “the systematic overview of educational programs to be certain that satisfactory criteria of instruction, scholarship and infrastructure are maintained.”

Top quality Assurance programs hook up to the mandates and other associated guidelines introduced in any place. It is very required for educational, social and economic advancement. A country’s advancement prepare functions as authorized foundation of employing high-quality assurance in an instructional institution due to the fact it includes mandates and guidelines by orders or decrees which are directed to all state’s agencies. It functions as a mom prepare for high-quality assurance- accreditation bodies that implement and keep an eye on. Commonly, in the absence of a made high-quality assurance group for endorsement, the Higher Education will become the channel of implementation which connects to non-public or general public institutions, by releasing guidelines. Every single institution strategies its very own high-quality assurance technique with the work of advancement prepare. The authorized bases of Top quality assurance range from just one place to a further. Irrespective of distinction of authorized bases, standard operational prepare of schools and universities usually exists that can additional branch out for all departments to pattern dependent on the organization’s buildings or measurements.

To formulate an operational prepare, there must be structure and by-legislation, faculty manuals, high-quality assurance accrediting council guidelines and the institution’s advancement strategies that stipulates or indicates the tenets of accreditations that are to be reached. All these 3 elements’ are interconnected by the mandates that contains operational canons or concepts to be attained specified by the mom prepare or the university’s standard operational prepare. Assuming that the X University has 5 departments specifically Faculty of Teacher Education, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Engineering and Faculty of Nursing. Every single of this department will body its very own Operational Program a part is a part of a complete that is analogous to sub-operational prepare is to department even though a standard operational prepare is to its college.

A department’s prepare operationally outlined herein is a procedure to be undertaken by all members of the department to link and augment the accomplishment of the complete institutions’ operational prepare. It is how every single member of a department functionally and successfully contributes in the enlargement of consumers and stakeholders’ welfare in an group. The overall performance of this operational prepare hopes to lead for high-quality expert services.

It comprises a department’s background in a variety of a preamble in conjunction with the mom prepare. It states the forms of learners as recipients of expert services, courses it features, material of the curriculum and how this curriculum operates for the promotion of students’ advancement. It also includes eyesight, mission and aims revolving all around the pertinent the tenets. These concepts to be strictly adopted incorporate but are not restricted to the curricular applications of the instructional institution, strategies of instructions including faculty specifications, institutional amenities for the advancement of training course choices and the faculty, complex and educational expert services provided to the students’ learning advancement, faculty researches, publications, the management, and community alliance or linkages irrespective of whether they are neighborhood or worldwide non-public or general public organizations. The operational prepare stipulates how these tenets are reached in a specific period of time. Considering the fact that it is built as an component of the mom prepare or complete institutions’ operational prepare, it is divided into University’s Operational Intention/s based from the targets said from the standard operational prepare. The university’s key targets are additional formulated into University Operational Program Sub-intention with Specific Aim/s to be supported by Specific Essential Performance Indicators (KPIs). These 3 (3) components are affiliated alongside one another dependent on the extent of the complete organization’s targets. Additionally, these four components supplies 5 (five) big components to follow in the execution of the prepare of steps which are aims, tactic, accountability, indicator, and targets as products of institutional discretions which suggests that these components can be revised or added dependent on necessities for the fulfilment of the prepare. The aims refer to the meant results extracted from the key targets connected with sub-targets.

Tactic is the method on how these aims will be carried out, accountability refers to the members of the institution these types of as administrative bodies or staff in charged or any staff linked to the accomplishment of the aims. Indicators are the performances carried out by the staff/members of the group in reaching the aims. Targets refer to the frequency, extent or evaluate of doing the tasks, accomplishments and its period of time of attainment. It also indicates predicted results. A goal elucidates the functionality of the tactics employed. The department’s operational prepare is a subdivision of the university’s operational prepare, so it has to follow the chronological components from the place it hyperlinks. Hence, it has to contain Normal University Intention, Specific Department’s Operational Program sub-intention and Essential Performance Indicators alongside one another with the components of the motion prepare on how to receive.

For case in point, the tenets targeted to be attained as said in the mom operational prepare is on instructions and faculty specifications, this principle will be stipulated in the department’s operational prepare very similar to what seems beneath.

(one) X University’s Operational Key Intention: The college strives to give high-quality instruction that will permit graduates for nationwide and Worldwide competitiveness by staffing of faculty personnel of high skills.

(one) Specific Liberal Arts Departments’ Operational Program sub-intention/specific aims: To standardized recruitment guidelines in the faculty of Liberal Arts by utilizing faculty instructors with pertinent encounter vertically aligned to their specializations and who have Masters or Doctorate skills from internationally acknowledged general public or point out universities from all around the world.

(one) Essential Performance Indicators: Improve population of faculty instructors with masters and /or doctorate degrees with pertinent faculty instructing experiences alongside with outstanding worldwide researches and specialized trainings.

To create the prepare of motion, a desk consisting of columns for aims, tactic, accountability, indicator and goal must be framed. As an case in point, the objective will contain: organize and strictly notice the standardized guidelines on the recruitment specifications of instructing staff in the department. The tactic involves: rigorous compliance to the recruitment guidelines mandated by the Section of Higher Education in admittance of college instructing staff. Accountability encompasses: department dean, department head, and dean of educational affairs. For indicators go over: appraisals of the recruitment guidelines and checking teachers’ expert advancement. The goal supplies: perform employing and retention every single starting of the educational year, rendition of faculty’s degree study the moment a year, reclassification of teachers’ position for each semester, 100% compliance to the recruitment criteria established by the Higher Education Section.

As a 2nd case in point, let us presume that the 2nd tenets stipulated in the standard operational prepare intention No. 2 of the institution is on exploration. An method to this standard intention is illustrated beneath.

(2) X University’s Operational Intention: The college endeavours to make lecturers with viable researches that contribute to the advancement of the institutions’ curricula and the recognition of faculty’s educational standing institutionally, nationally and internationally.

(2) Specific Liberal Arts Departments’ Operational Program sub-intention/specific aims: To inspire teachers’ exploration about their respective specializations by funding the conduct and publications of researches in institutional, nationwide and worldwide peered journals and award faculty’s scholastic attempts as evidenced by their prepared is effective.

(2) Essential Performance Indicators: Improve of faculty researches in nationwide and worldwide -peered educational journals. Researches are made use of in the department, college and are accessed by other institutions nationally and internationally.

Now to create the prepare of motion, a desk consisting of columns for aims, tactic, accountability, indicator and goal will follow. To exemplify, the objective/s will contain: to make research’s which are practical in the institutions or in other organizations in nationwide or in worldwide environment. To produce an graphic of faculty vested with comprehensive information able of worldwide efficiency. The tactic involves: fund and inspire the principles of faculty members for exploration engagement and help the publication of researches to institutionally, nationally, internationally peered journals dependent on the character of the researches and award or compensate lecturers with posted researches. Accountability encompasses: the college president, human useful resource management, educational affairs and department head. Indicator covers: the acceptance of proposed exploration, checking of ongoing and attained researches in the faculty of liberal arts and submission of studies on comments about exploration status to the head of the department. The goal supplies: yearly completion of attained studies to be submitted to staff accountable for analysis. Reminders of exploration proposal by issued directives at the starting of the educational year. eighty% submission to the directives of the department heads.

Top quality assurance in an instructional institution won’t area without the need of the availability of pertinent methods and these concepts which instructional targets are based on are the pursuing tenets: curricular applications, instructions, amenities, educational expert services for learners, faculty researches, publications, management, and community alliance or linkages with neighborhood or worldwide non-public or general public organizations. The operational prepare stipulates how these tenets are reached in a specific period of time of time. The high-quality assurance status of a standard college will be assessed by its personal departments’ accomplishment whose high-quality assurance’s status have been weighed in accordance to high-quality assurance criteria by accreditation institutions.

Resource by Marvin Wacnag Lidawan

Distance Learning – Instruction for the twenty first Century

Prospects are you can enjoy someone who is doing the job toward a college or put up-college degree via the Net. Most likely you oneself have attended online lessons to keep on being your training, get hold of a certification, or to increase you chances for development in your position.

Additional and a superior deal additional men and women are acquiring they can be provided their degree from an accredited online university which permits the identical difficulty and high quality of a classic classroom in an natural environment which makes it possible for them to in shape training into a life that ought to be as well busy for a a better amount of money of conventional approach of instruction.

In accordance to a latest municipal examine, about 127,400 distance education programs obtained supplied in 2001?02, and there obtained about 3.1 million enrollments in distance education. In excess of 1-50 percent of all postsecondary training agencies supplied distance education, and an additional twelve per cent prepared to provide distance education in the next 3 decades.

Distance training is outlined as training or instruction programs shipped to a remote (off-campus) area via audio, online video, or laptop or computer systems. Classes conducted exclusively on campus, as perfectly as lessons conducted exclusively via prepared correspondence, are not included in this sort of a definition of length.

It is increasingly distinct so know-how has expanded the capacity of pupils to take part in postsecondary training. Just about every single variety of learner can advantage from what i read through in some sort of online training. In addition to the fast proliferation of new programs and programs, colleges and universities are taking benefit of the Net to boost the admissions approach and give risk pupils the option to request online.

On the web training enables you to determine without making a key upheaval in your life. You can entrance online class rooms paying out off any Net link, whenever and all but any where. This spherical-the-clock entry makes it possible for you to down load assignments, seemed at and take part in class conversations, assessment college opinions, and a superior deal additional, all at moments that are convenient to your qualified and particular agenda. Several pupils find overly this included adaptability, which performs not sacrifice high quality, helps continue to keep them on keep track of toward this objectives better variety of conveniently than amidst the rigid scheduling of a classic finding out natural environment.

There is also evidence the a percentage of people pupils who take part in postsecondary training in this sort of a properties or workplace would not usually enroll in postsecondary training. So, it appears that know-how is opening up new marketplaces of likely classmen without considerably coming down the variety of pupils who would enroll in classic colleges and universities, quite a few of which also are giving know-how-mediated distance education.

Distance learners are also additional frequently than not excellent with their online finding out practical experience. A massive-scale countrywide examine of college student participation in distance education tackled college student pleasure of distance education lessons and, when questioned how happy they were with their distance education lessons put facet by facet to this sort of a regular lessons, a the greater part of each undergraduate and graduate pupils were at minimum as happy or additional happy amongst the high quality of training in their distance education lessons compared with their regular lessons.

Most likely it is time to concentration consideration on the additional essential evaluate of how undergrads understand, irrespective of the delivery system. Engineering-mediated length finding out is evolving so speedily it is tricky for training professionals to established requirements that adequately deal with the contemporary standing and the foreseeable future likely of the online finding out practical experience.

Simply because experimental scientific tests comparing distance education programs with campus-dependent programs have been rooted upon the premise that campus-dependent programs are the ?gold normal,? which may well be open to query, it may well be advisable to abandon these scientific tests. It appears that addressing how classmen determine and concentrating on results assessment may well be additional effective.

Various enterprises have matured requirements and guidelines to guarantee unique distance education, such as the Southern Regional Electronic Campus, the Countrywide Instruction Association, and the Western Cooperative for Academic Telecommunications. These guidelines go over locations this sort of as technique growth, evaluation and assessment, college assist, and institutional assist. Among the benchmarks, interactivity?amongst college student and college, college student and college student, and college student and facts?is the solitary most important cog for usefulness in distance education.

Resource by virgilio vallecera