Bochum – Deutsches Bergbau-Museum – Strecken Abzweig

Bochum - Deutsches Bergbau-Museum - Strecken Abzweig

The Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum (DBM) is with his about 400,000 readers per calendar year 1 of the mainly frequented museums of Germany.

It is 1 of the most crucial mining museums of the entire world and at the same time a popular study institute for Montanhistory.

The beginnings of the mining museum go back for the 1860s when the Westfälische Berggewerkschaftskasse (WBK) furnishes a frequent exhibition of mountain-architectural utensils in Bochum which served mainly the mountain school lessons. In the conclusion of the twenties factors were being formulated by associates of the WBK and the city of Bochum for the basis of a publicly available mining museum.

The basis deal for the historical museum of the mining was shut on the 1st of April, 1930 between the city of Bochum and the WBK, as the first corridor of the museum serves the outdated cattle corridor of the shut Bochum slaughterhouse. On the place of the slaughterhouse a new setting up of the museum setting up with further exhibition area was explained in 1935 according to draughts by Fritz Schupp and Heinrich Holzapfel.

In 1936 1 started with the building of the customer mine.

In 1943 the not still great museum new buildings were being wrecked by allied air raids extensively, the customer mine was altered for the air defence. Currently in 1946 the museum was reopened with a compact exhibition. In the nineteen fifties the museum was anew created up and prolonged, in 1960 the distances of the view mine on a full size of two,510 metres are formulated.

The shaft tower was moved in the decades 1973 and 1974 by the shut mine “Germania” in Dortmund-Marten to Bochum. The conversion was financed from usually means of the North Rhine-Westphalian Ministry of Education and the Arts.…

# one Ministry of Education – Holographic Film

# 1 Ministry of Education - Holographic Film

frame # 2 – The National Ministry of Education at 72 Rue Regnault in the 13th Arr. (Jacques Brauer architect 1971)

Digicam: Minolta 24 Speedy – c.1965
Film: Kodak Holographic Film SO-253 (expired5/2006)
Day: nine/5/2014
Development: Labeauratoire’s Caffenol Concoction
(2nd use)
16min. @ 20°c
Working with Fixer by Chemiewerk Lousy Köstritz DDR “A300 for ORWO”
SCANNER: HP Scanjet G4050 with VueScan Software program…

Menstruation a Hindrance to Girls Education and learning in Kenya

In spite of the onset of menstruation being an crucial milestone in the changeover from childhood to adulthood, it is generally seen as a important problem.

In Kenya for example, hundreds of thousands of ladies who have arrived at puberty are very dis-empowered due to lack of access to sanitary wear. Quite a few adolescent ladies from disadvantaged family members are unable to pay for to get sanitary towels, and decide to utilizing insanitary techniques.

Girls who are unable to pay for sanitary pads resort to crude and unhygienic techniques, such as utilizing previous parts of mattresses, previous fabric, or inserting cotton wool into their uterus to test to block the flow. In Kenya’s sprawling urban slums, ladies acquire utilized pads from rubbish dumps, and clean them for their individual use, ensuing in really serious well being issues.

Millions of ladies in Kenya are at hazard of dropping out of school at the onset of menstruation. In accordance to a examine by the Ministry of Education, Kenyan adolescent ladies skip roughly 3.five million mastering times for each month through their menstrual cycle. This hinders their potential to compete in the classroom, leads to minimal self-esteem, better fall-out charges and, in some areas, makes them susceptible to early relationship. Along with the shed mastering times, ladies eliminate self-confidence, and the chance of accomplishing their probable diminishes further every month.

Restricted access to protected, reasonably priced, easy and hygienic techniques for controlling menstruation has much-reaching implications for the legal rights and actual physical, social and mental well being of adolescent ladies. It not only undermines sexual and reproductive well being and well being but has been proven to limit girls’ access to instruction when they skip school due to lack of right strategies of controlling their menstruation. This has an influence on their functionality and could in the long run direct to some dropping out of school.

Presently, gals comprise the bulk of illiterate grownup Kenyans at 58 for each cent. Appreciably, this is as a end result of their inability to entire school for numerous of the motives related with sexual and reproductive well being.

The next and third Millennium Progress Targets (MDG2&3), “obtain common major instruction”, and “market gender equality and empowerment,” are not only crucial growth aim in their individual correct, but also an crucial means to accomplishing all MDGs. It is crucial that Kenya speeds up her endeavours and choose further motion to make certain that the hundreds of thousands of ladies affected by the lack of instruction advantage from the essential promises of the MDGs. Action desires to be taken to tackle the underlying causes that limit women’s financial opportunities.

Resource by Felix Muvea

The Value of Learning Chinese As a 2nd Language

There is a expanding wish earth-wide to realize the often misunderstood nation of China and benefit from studying the most broadly spoken language in the earth. Far more and much more persons each youthful and aged are finding out the language to raise business possibilities and for individual explanations. In reality, fairly a handful of notable people today have determined to discover Chinese and broaden their horizons. Amid them are previous Australian Key minister, Kevin Rudd the US President Obama&#39s daughter, Malia Obama and the profitable entrepreneur, Mark Zuckerberg. They all chose to review Chinese as their 2nd language. The review of the language opens the doorway to a variety of vital fields together with Chinese politics, historical past, overall economy and other business possibilities.

In 2010, 750,000 persons from all over the earth took the Formal Chinese Proficiency Check. The people today who started studying the language had been quite various, different in each industries and backgrounds. There is a huge progress around the world in the range of non-Chinese, heritage persons finding out Mandarin. In reality, just lately President Obama announced a new initiative aimed at getting 1 million American school little ones discover Mandarin Chinese over the next 5 a long time. The Chinese overall economy is quickly becoming the earth&#39s greatest overall economy when all over again, which will make it very important for Westerners to far better realize Chinese tradition, and prepare American pupils to offer with China in upcoming work.

Obama announced the new initiative even though standing apart Chinese President Xi Jinping, who said 2016 “will be a calendar year of tourism concerning China and the United States.” He said 50,000 pupils will take part in an exchange software concerning the two countries within the next three a long time.

It&#39s quick to see why knowing Mandarin and knowledge China is so vital when you factor that they have 1.28 billion persons, which equals 1 fifth of the worldwide inhabitants. Presently, China is the 2nd greatest overall economy in the earth, alongside with earth powerhouses these as the US, England and other areas of the Europe. In 2014, China&#39s top three investing partners had been the US at $ 521 billion, Hong Kong at $ 401 billion and Japan.

The demand from customers for finding out Chinese as a 2nd language has long gone up significantly, which has manufactured the services that educate the language quite popular. In accordance to the Chinese Ministry of Education, much more than 330 official institutions are teaching Chinese as a overseas language all over the earth. The the vast majority of the pupils are from other countries. Sadly, it&#39s impossible for absolutely everyone wishing to discover Chinese to get a system in the nation of origin. That&#39s why on the internet services featuring 1-on-1 tutoring are quite useful. These services purpose to boost Chinese language and tradition, help local Chinese teaching internationally, and aid cultural exchanges. College students who enroll in these types of applications are equipped to communicate instantly with an individual from China, so they see good outcomes in just a handful of weeks. All the instructors are genuine Mandarin speakers, which helps with pronunciation.

Learning Chinese benefits any one in “the West” or from countries that make up China&#39s greatest investing partners&#39 these as US, Australia and Germany. Now much more than at any time, it&#39s very important to discover this language and achieve far better awareness of 1 of the oldest cultures in the earth.

Resource by Melissa Bill

Reading Development in Two Different Contexts:the Case of the English-greek Bilingual Children in UK and in Cyprus

Introduction

Bilingualism has a unique place within the educational context, since modern technology has minimalised the distances between countries and people. Furthermore, the growing phenomenon of multilingual and multicultural countries and groupings (United Nations, United States, European Union) gives new significance to the issue. Research on bilingualism has been progressing quite rapidly and different disciplines have added their own contributions to the field. Nevertheless, new questions surface every day and they are usually multiple answers to these questions. This paper also attempts to answer the question whether linguistic diversity is also an inclusive issue. The following study derived from the need to answer similar questions raised by the increasing number of multilingual and multicultural children in primary schools nowadays. 

What is evident from the review of studies on bilingualism, are that the multiple factors influencing the bilingual child’s learning (e.g., the level of linguistic competence in the two languages shared by the bilingual child; the “use” of two languages at home, at school, the age of the bilingual child; the language/s used by the parents; the formal education system; etc.) play an important role on bilingual children’s linguistic development. Therefore, bilingualism is a complex issue where research is still ongoing and the limited number of studies on bilingualism provides a variety of findings, which could support different hypotheses.

In this paper, I try to show the different interconnected factors influencing the bilingual English-Greek children’s reading and also the educational implications for the two countries involved, in the light of inclusive policies followed recently across UK and Cyprus. Multiple case-study design was used to explore the factors influencing English-Greek children’s reading within four different school cases, three in UK and one in Cyprus. The data were analyzed against the quantitative and qualitative framework provided in the following section.

Theoretical background

In the last 20 years considerable changes have been taking place in education, that are mostly based upon conceptualization of what “special education” means and whether it should be considered as a separate area of concern (Ainscow, 1999). As a consequence, inclusion in education is a process concerning with the never-ending search to find better ways of responding to diversity. (Ainscow, 2005).

“In the last few years Cyprus is increasingly becoming a less homogeneous society”. The accession to the European Union and the educational imperatives that pluralism entails have an impact on educational system in Cyprus. (Hadjigeorgiou and Papapavlou, 2005). Within the last decade, the educational context of Cyprus has been changing rapidly. A growing number of linguistically and nationally different children have been attending Greek class. Within the existing arrangements, however, many pupils whose their mother tongue is not Greek may be marginalized or even excluded from teaching. Educational inclusion as a process promoting the participation of all students could be the answer to the needs of the children who belong to linguistic diverse groups. According to Ainscow (ibid) inclusion consequently concerns with the identification and removal of barriers. Adding to the latter, language diversity and cultural diversity could be considered such as barriers that could be removed with educational inclusion

The Cyprus Ministry of Education has been attempting to apply inclusive strategies to respond to linguistic diversity by appointing teachers to help bilingual children. Some of the teachers are trained to work with bilinguals, some are not. There is still lack of systematic application of literacy strategies at the Cyprus educational system.

At this section it is also important to refer to some issues relating to the organisational context of primary education in Cyprus, as well as to the teaching of literacy (to bilingual and monolingual children) in primary schools:

1) All primary schools in Cyprus are essentially similar, independent of local context factors (e.g., differential school ethos, administrative styles, faculty cultures).

2) The administration of primary education is highly centralised.

3) Teachers are responsible only for the successful implementation of the goals, objectives and programmes approved by the central office. 

4) Bilingual children are taught within the mainstream schools and in certain cases (in areas with a large bilingual population) in special units within the mainstream schools.

UK has been also a rapidly changing educational context with the increasing number of linguistically and culturally diverted children attending primary education nationally.

The model of literacy applied in UK incorporates both top down and bottom up approaches. The literacy strategy is based on searchlights (see following section) and includes both analytic and synthetic phonic approaches to reading. In the following section the English context for beginners in reading is presented.

The programme of study for the reading of English in the National Curriculum in England and Wales states that:

 

Pupils should be taught to read with fluency, accuracy, understanding and enjoyment, building on what they already know…Pupils should be taught the alphabet, and be made aware of the sounds of spoken language in order to develop phonological awareness (Department for Education and Welsh Office, 1995, p 6).

The following types of knowledge, understanding and skills are mentioned, based on the four basic searchlights (NLS framework, 1998), each of which sheds light on the text. These searchlights are: 

Phonic knowledge (sound and spelling)

Graphic knowledge

Word recognition

Grammatical knowledge

Contextual understanding (knowledge of context)

(Department for Education and Welsh Office, 1995, p.7).

The Framework for Teaching (The National Literacy Strategy, 1998)

…covers the statutory requirements for reading and writing in the National Curriculum for English and contributes to the Development of Speaking and Listening (p 3)

In autumn 1998, the National Literacy Strategy was introduced in all schools in England. The goal of the strategy is to raise the standards of achievement in literacy using a detailed set of teaching objectives in each year of primary education. The objectives are defined in the National Literacy Strategy Framework for Teaching (GB. DfEE, 1999). The basis for teaching is a structured daily session (the “literacy hour”). The daily literacy hour is at the heart of the framework.  It involves planned whole class teaching, structured group work and clear routines for independent working.

The study

Data were explored and a number of issues emerged in relation to the following research questions:

1) How does reading develop in monolingual and bilingual learners across four school case studies in two countries (UK and Cyprus)?

2) What factors influence the development of the bilingual English-Greek and monolingual English/Greek children’s reading in English and Greek?

3) What are the implications for teaching in these two countries?

My personal interest on the first two questions was yielded from my long teaching experience with bilingual English-Greek and Greek-English children in England and in Cyprus primary education. During my enrollment with bilingual children, a number of questions arose relating the children’s reading development.  In addition, the difference in reading strategies and educational policies across the two contexts initiated the third question of the possible implications for teaching reading to bilingual and monolingual children in these two countries.

Participants

This study explores the educational context of the Greek-English children in UK and Cyprus. Therefore, the study involved four different school case studies and four groups of children.  The sample derived from one urban state elementary school in the “City of Saint Epiphanios”, Limassol (two groups, 50 Monolingual Greek and 50 Bilingual Greek-English) Cyprus; the others were three elementary schools. Two Greek Schools in “Hudders City” England, (one group of 24 English-Greek children) and “Nelson City”, England (one group of 26 English-Greek children). Finally, one English school in “Hudders City”, England (one group of 50 Monolingual English children)

Method

It is important to remember that the study was essentially exploratory in nature. Rather unusually, too, it combined a number of dimensions that are not usually used together.  So, for example, it involved the detailed analysis of individual case studies within the context of a range of statistical information presented.  At the same time, it involved a comparative dimension (comparing school case studies and groups of children within the school case studies in two countries) with reference to the educational and linguistic contexts of England and Cyprus. Specifically, the study was designed to address the way reading develops in England and in Cyprus at two different levels (a macro level and a micro level).  

In deciding how to best design a cross-cultural study (studying the different contexts in particular), the researcher should consider complex theoretical considerations about how best to measure and interpret phenomena occurring in the two cultures. Different methods (for example, instrument design, sampling frame, mode of data collection, data analysis and documentation) may also be applied in order to achieve the quality of cross-cultural measurement. To conclude, the multidimensionality of a number of different factors influencing the research process in cross-comparison studies urges the choice of multiple case study and exploratory research as the appropriate methodology for the thorough investigation of the explored factors.     

Procedures

Having considered the overall approach that was taken in relation to the design of the study, in this section I explain in more specific terms the actual procedures followed.  I will start by explaining how a variety of methods were used in carrying out what I believe to be exploratory research that involved multiple-case studies.

In the present exploratory study there were four different school cases. The observation included two different levels: one at the local educational school context (school) and one at the national educational level (national educational level). Quantitative and qualitative data was collected through observation, structured, informal interviews and testing (cognitive and reading tests).     

Data were collected and analysed using the four different perspectives developed in Chapter Three (i.e. script dependent, universal, linguistic threshold and linguistic interdependence); ways of data analysis are presented in detail in the Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9.

This approach is illustrated in the following diagram. The diagram illustrates how the aid of theories provided by monolingual studies was used to investigate reading development in bilingual settings.

Diagram illustrating the use of varied theoretical perspectives in analysing data

Preliminary Understanding Of the hypotheses tested in English and Greek Monolingual

Populations

Preliminary Understanding of the Hypotheses tested in English and Greek Monolingual Populations

Preliminary Understanding

Of the hypotheses tested in English and Greek Monolingual Populations

Deeper Understanding of

Reading

Development in Bilingual Populations

Universal Theory

Script Dependent Theory

Linguistic Dependence Theory

 

Linguistic Threshold

Theory

The study involved the bringing together of data collected by both qualitative and quantitative methods. This use of multiple methods permitted triangulation of the data in order to develop deeper understandings from which inferences could be derived.

A multiple-case approach was adopted since, according to Yin (1980), this offers the “ability to deal with a variety of evidence documents, artefacts, interviews, and observations” (p. 20). Yin defines this case study as a phenomenon taking place within real life context. This is actually the case for bilingual learners who come from bilingual parents. In short, it seems reasonable to assume that a multiple-case study approach to investigate bilingual reading holds potential for learning about a relatively not thoroughly investigated phenomenon (Jimenez, et al., 1995).

By using multiple case studies and methods, the researcher also tries to achieve the triangulation and reliability of observation in a combined way in order to deepen understanding.

The context in which English monolingual, Greek monolingual, English-Greek bilingual and Greek-English bilingual children learn to read is different in Cyprus and in the UK. The differences are evident in the following domains of impact on reading development as these prevailed from the review of studies with bilingual English-Greek children. These domains of impact were distinguished into the following interconnected factors:

·         Linguistic factors (first and second languages used by the children).

·         Developmental factors, (cognitive characteristics).

·         Sociolinguistic environment (e.g., research using parents, siblings, friends, etc., sociolinguistic interaction with bilingual children provides information about children’s use of Greek and English languages).

·         The nature of the educational systems systems the UK and Cyprus.

I used a framework of analysis (presented via a diagram) in order to …

Teacher Factors That Contribute To Weak General performance In English Language In Kenya

Kenya is a nation in east Africa. It is a multilingual condition recognizing the existence of English, Kiswahili and ethnic languages. In Kenya, English plays an essential purpose in countrywide affairs considering that it can be the language in which most governmental and judicial enterprise are performed. In addition it is the language made use of as the medium of instruction in the instruction procedure and it can be a compulsory matter at major and superior school stages. It functions as a service matter.

A common grievance amongst businessmen, parents and companies in Kenya is that the benchmarks of English feel to be deteriorating. A lot of pupils use slangy unpunctuated and ungrammatical expressions. A range of scholars have pointed at the English language trainer to clarify this circumstance.

Initially, it has been noted that the English language trainer works by using incorrect techniques for teaching some facets of the language such as pronunciation. In the Schooling Handbook the trainer is envisioned to give the pupils with skills for distinguishing the pronunciation of unique English vowels. Next, the language trainer has minimal or no help from his colleagues. He is the only a single who stresses accuracy on expression, spelling and punctuation. Whilst the other teachers who use English as their medium of instruction never care on correcting these errors. So, they enable to fossilize them in the learners.

Thirdly, some teachers skip the material parts where by they are not knowledgeable and this leaves gaps in the expertise of the language by the learner which are discovered when it arrives to real use of the language.

Fourthly, teachers are not enthusiastic to instruct by both equally the school administration and the ministry of education. The administration does not avail the vital class textbooks and established textbooks. The ministry of education on the other hand does not inspire the teachers as a result of its inspection part by providing the vital skilled assistance. Therefore pupils are not efficiently and competently taught.

Ultimately, some insurance policies in Kenyan schools have contributed to weak effectiveness in language. Some insurance policies, such as protecting silence inside of the school compound have denied the learners the discussion board to follow the language where by they can get corrected by their fellow learners and enhance their masterly of the language. These insurance policies are enforced by teachers.

Therefore, a lot of pupils leave school devoid of the means to speak or read English efficiently or competently. They simply cannot hope to acquire entrance into establishments of increased understanding or get into meaningful official employment.…